Bibliografia

  1. Lapi F, Bianchini E, Michieli R, Pasqua A, Cricelli I, Mazzaglia G, Frediani B, Prieto‑Alhambra D, Brandi ML, Cricelli Claudio. Assessing Risk of Osteoporotic Fractures in Primary Care: Development and Validation of the FRA-HS Algorithm. Calcif Tissue Int
  2. Cooper C, Cole ZA, Holroyd CR, Earl SC, Harvey NC, Dennison EM, et al. Secular trends in the incidence of hip and other osteoporotic fractures. Osteoporos Int 2011;22:1277–88. doi:10.1007/s00198-011-1601-6.
  3. Cauley JA, Chalhoub D, Kassem AM, Fuleihan GE-H. Geographic and ethnic disparities in osteoporotic fractures. Nat Rev Endocrinol 2014;10:338–51. doi:10.1038/nrendo.2014.51.
  4. Watts NB. Insights from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW). Nat Rev Endocrinol 2014;10:412–22. doi:10.1038/nrendo.2014.55.
  5. Johnell O, Kanis JA, Oden A, Sernbo I, Redlund-Johnell I, Petterson C, et al. Mortality after osteoporotic fractures. Osteoporos Int 2004;15:38–42. doi:10.1007/s00198-003-1490-4.
  6. Johansson H, Oden A, Kanis J, McCloskey E, Lorentzon M, Ljunggren O, et al. Low bone mineral density is associated with increased mortality in elderly men: MrOS Sweden. Osteoporos Int 2010. doi:10.1007/s00198-010-1331-1.
  7. Cannada LK, Hill BW. Osteoporotic Hip and Spine Fractures: A Current Review. Geriatr Orthop Surg Rehabil 2014;5:207–12. doi:10.1177/2151458514548579.
  8. Ratti C, Vulcano E, La Barbera G, Canton G, Murena L, Cherubino P. The incidence of fragility fractures in Italy. Aging Clin Exp Res 2013;25 Suppl 1:S13–4. doi:10.1007/s40520-013-0071-4.
  9. Rubin KH, Abrahamsen B, Friis-Holmberg T, Hjelmborg JVB, Bech M, Hermann AP, et al. Comparison of different screening tools (FRAX(R), OST, ORAI, OSIRIS, SCORE and age alone) to identify women with increased risk of fracture. A population-based prospective study. Bone 2013;56:16–22. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2013.05.002.
  10. Kanis JA, Johnell O, Oden A, Johansson H, McCloskey E. FRAX and the assessment of fracture probability in men and women from the UK. Osteoporos Int 2008;19:385–97. doi:10.1007/s00198-007-0543-5.
  11. Marques A, Ferreira RJO, Santos E, Loza E, Carmona L, da Silva JAP. The accuracy of osteoporotic fracture risk prediction tools: a systematic review  and meta-analysis. Ann Rheum Dis 2015. doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2015-207907.
  12. Collins GS, Le Manach Y. Flawed validation of FRAX. Bone 2015. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2015.07.005.
  13. Kanis JA, Johnell O, De Laet C, Jonsson B, Oden A, Ogelsby AK. International variations in hip fracture probabilities: implications for risk assessment. J Bone Miner Res 2002;17:1237–44. doi:10.1359/jbmr.2002.17.7.1237.
  14. Kanis JA, Hans D, Cooper C, Baim S, Bilezikian JP, Binkley N, et al. Interpretation and use of FRAX in clinical practice. Osteoporos Int 2011;22:2395–411. doi:10.1007/s00198-011-1713-z.
  15. Kreidieh OI, El-Hajj Fuleihan G. Impact of changes in mortality on FRAX-derived fracture probabilities. Bone 2014;62:43–50. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2014.01.014.
  16. Piscitelli P, Chitano G, Johannson H, Brandi ML, Kanis JA, Black DM. Updated fracture incidence rates for the Italian version of FRAX(R). Osteoporos Int 2013;24:859–66. doi:10.1007/s00198-012-2021-y.
  17. Oden A, Dawson A, Dere W, Johnell O, Jonsson B, Kanis JA. Lifetime risk of hip fractures is underestimated. Osteoporos Int 1998;8:599–603.
  18. Lapi F, Simonetti M, Michieli R, Pasqua A, Brandi ML, Frediani B, et al. Assessing 5-year incidence rates and determinants of osteoporotic fractures in primary care. Bone 2012;50:85–90. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2011.09.048.
  19. Sterrantino C, Trifiro G, Lapi F, Pasqua A, Mazzaglia G, Piccinni C, et al. Burden of community-acquired pneumonia in Italian general practice. Eur Respir J 2013;42:1739–42. doi:10.1183/09031936.00128713.
  20. Mazzaglia G, Ambrosioni E, Alacqua M, Filippi A, Sessa E, Immordino V, et al. Adherence to antihypertensive medications and cardiovascular morbidity among newly diagnosed hypertensive patients. Circulation 2009;120:1598–605. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.830299.
  21. Bianchini E, Brignoli O, Cricelli C, Cricelli I, Giustini S, Medea G, et al. VIII Report Health Search. Anno 2013/2014. Firenze: 2014.
  22. Ray WA, Griffin MR, Fought RL, Adams ML. Identification of fractures from computerized Medicare files. J Clin Epidemiol 1992;45:703–14.
  23. Kanis JA, McCloskey E V, Johansson H, Oden A, Strom O, Borgstrom F. Development and use of FRAX in osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 2010;21 Suppl 2:S407–13. doi:10.1007/s00198-010-1253-y.
  24. Fine, JP, Gray R. A Proportional Hazards Model for the Subdistribution of a Competing Risk. J Am Stat Assoc 1999:496–509. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2670170?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents (accessed September 16, 2015).
  25. Wolbers M, Blanche P, Koller MT, Witteman JCM, Gerds TA. Concordance for prognostic models with competing risks. Biostatistics 2014;15:526–39. doi:10.1093/biostatistics/kxt059.
  26. Demler O V, Paynter NP, Cook NR. Tests of calibration and goodness-of-fit in the survival setting. Stat Med 2015;34:1659–80. doi:10.1002/sim.6428.
  27. Steyerberg EW, Vickers AJ, Cook NR, Gerds T, Gonen M, Obuchowski N, et al. Assessing the performance of prediction models: a framework for traditional and novel measures. Epidemiology 2010;21:128–38. doi:10.1097/EDE.0b013e3181c30fb2.
  28. Kanis JA, Johansson H, Oden A, Cooper C, McCloskey E V. Worldwide uptake of FRAX. Arch Osteoporos 2014;9:166. doi:10.1007/s11657-013-0166-8.
  29. Azagra R, Roca G, Encabo G, Aguye A, Zwart M, Guell S, et al. FRAX(R) tool, the WHO algorithm to predict osteoporotic fractures: the first analysis of its discriminative and predictive ability in the Spanish FRIDEX cohort. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2012;13:204. doi:10.1186/1471-2474-13-204.
  30. Blanche P, Dartigues J-F, Jacqmin-Gadda H. Estimating and comparing time-dependent areas under receiver operating characteristic curves for censored event times with competing risks. Stat Med 2013;32:5381–97. doi:10.1002/sim.5958.
  31. Kanis JA, Johnell O, Oden A, Sembo I, Redlund-Johnell I, Dawson A, et al. Long-term risk of osteoporotic fracture in Malmo. Osteoporos Int 2000;11:669–74.
  32. McCloskey E V, Johansson H, Oden A, Kanis JA. From relative risk to absolute fracture risk calculation: the FRAX algorithm. Curr Osteoporos Rep 2009;7:77–83.
  33. WD L, LM L, Johansson H, Oden A, McCloskey E, JA K. Independent clinical validation of a Canadian FRAX((R)) tool: Fracture prediction and model calibration. J Bone Miner Res 2010. doi:10.1002/jbmr.123.
  34. Kanis JA, Johnell O, Oden A, Johansson H, McCloskey E. FRAX and the assessment of fracture probability in men and women from the UK. Osteoporos Int 2008;19:385–97. doi:10.1007/s00198-007-0543-5.
  35. Piscitelli P, Tarantino U, Chitano G, Argentiero A, Neglia C, Agnello N, et al. Updated incidence rates of fragility fractures in Italy: extension study 2002-2008. Clin Cases Miner Bone Metab 2011;8:54–61.
  36. McGowan B, Kanis JA, Johansson H, Silke C, Whelan B. Development and application of FRAX in the management of osteoporosis in Ireland. Arch Osteoporos 2013;8:146. doi:10.1007/s11657-013-0146-z.